Friday, August 17, 2007

Nervous Breakdown Symptoms

Mental breakdown (also known as nervous breakdown) is a non-medical term used to describe a sudden, acute attack of mental illness such as depression or anxiety. When used in common social discourse, the term often has pejorative connotations.

Specific cases are usually described as a "breakdown" only after a person becomes unable to function in day-to-day life due to mental illness. At that point the person's condition is advanced, and seeking professional aid is likely advisable.

Like the term “sanity,” the terms "nervous breakdown" and "mental breakdown" have no medical definition and are not used in a clinical sense. However, the medical or personal problems precipitating a sudden breakdown may well benefit from professional medical or psychological treatment.

A mental breakdown is not the same as a panic attack, though mental breakdowns can trigger panic.

Causes of breakdown might include:
chronic and unresolved grief
academic problems
career burnout
social stress
post-war trauma
chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders
serious or chronic illness of a family member
death of a family member
a traumatic, violent, or near-death experience
deception by a loved one.

The sudden, acute onset of the following mental illnesses might be classified as breakdowns:
clinical depression
bipolar disorder
post-traumatic stress disorder
severe stress

 Nervous Breakdown Symptoms

Nervous Breakdown Symptoms


Mebendazole (brand name Ovex®, Vermox®, Antiox® or Pripsen®) is a drug commonly used to combat pinworms, roundworms and hookworms. It is sometimes referred to as "MBZ". Mebendazole (C16H13N3O3) causes slow immobilization and death of the worms by selectively and irreversibly blocking uptake of glucose and other nutrients in susceptible adult intestine where helminths dwell. It is a spindle poison that induces chromosome nondisjunction. Oral dosage is 100 mg 12 hourly for 3 days, although sometimes the dosage is just one 500 mg dose, followed by another dose two weeks later if the infection has not cleared up. The dosage may differ depending on which type of worm someone is infected with.

Janssen Pharmaceutica, is a pharmaceutical company based in Beerse, Belgium, was established in 1953 by Dr. Paul Janssen. It was created not as a subsidiary of a chemical factory but solely with the aim of conducting pharmacological research. The company's stated aim is the continuous development of better drugs to improve the quality of life.

In 1961 Janssen Pharmaceutica joined the Johnson & Johnson group and is now part of the company's worldwide research and development centre, the Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development (J&J PRD) which conducts research and development activities related to a wide range of human medical disorders, including mental illness, neurological disorders, anaesthesia and analgesia, gastrointestinal disorders, fungal infection, allergies and cancer.

The early roots of what would become Janssen Pharmaceutica date back to 1933. In 1933 Dr. Constant Janssen, the father of Paul Janssen, acquires the right to distribute the pharmaceutical products of Richter, a Hungarian pharmaceutical company, for Belgium, the Netherlands and Belgian Congo. On 23 October 1934, he founded the N.V. Produkten Richter in Turnhout. In 1937 Constant Janssen acquired an old factory building in the Statiestraat 78 in Turnhout for his growing company, which he expanded during World War II into a four-storey building. Still a student, Paul Janssen helps on the development of Perdolan. After the war, the name for the company products was changed in Eupharma, although the company name Richter would remain until 1956.

Dr. Paul Janssen founded his own research laboratory in 1953 on the third floor of the building in the Statiestraat, still within the Richter-Eurpharma company of his father. In 1955, he and his team developed their first drug: Neomeritine (ambucetamide), an antispasmodic found to be particularly effective for the relief of menstrual pain. On 5 April 1956, the name of the company was changed in NV Laboratoria Pharmaceutica Dr. C. Janssen (named after Dr. Constant Janssen). On 27 April 1957, the company opened a new research facility in Beerse, but the move to Beerse would not be completed until 1971-1972. On 2 May 1958, the research department in Beerse became a separate legal entity, the N.V. Research Laboratorium Dr. C. Janssen.

On 24 October 1961, the company was acquired by the American group Johnson & Johnson. The negotiations with Johnson & Johnson were led by Frans Van den Bergh, head of the Board of Directors. In 1964, on 10 February, the name was changed to Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. and the seat of the company in Turnhout was also transferred to Beerse. The company was led by Paul Janssen, Bob Stouthuysen and Frans Van Den Bergh. When, in 1971-1972 the pharmaceutical production also came to Beerse, the move from Turnhout was completed.

Janssen Pharmaceutica expanded worldwide; in 1990, it had already 3000 employees in Belgium, further expanding up to 4600 in 2004. In 2004 there worked about 28000 people for Janssen Pharmaceutica worldwide.

Janssen Pharmaceutica from the beginning emphasized as its core activity research for the development of new drugs. The research department which was established in Beerse in 1957, developed into a large research campus. In 1987, the Janssen Research Foundation (JRF) was founded which performs research into new drugs, also in other laboratories around the globe. Janssen Pharmaceutica became the Flemish company with the largest budget for research and development. Beside the headquarters in Beerse with its research departments, pharmaceutical production and the administrative departments, Janssen Pharmaceutica in Belgium still has offices in Berchem (Janssen-Cilag), a chemical factory in Geel, and Janssen Biotech in Olen.

The Chemical Production plant in Geel, makes the active ingredients for the company’s medicines. In 1975, the first plant of a new chemical factory Plant I was established in Geel, Plant II was opened in 1977, Plant III' in 1984, and Plant IV in 1995. In 1999 the remaining chemical poduction in Beerse would be transferred to Geel. About 80% of its active components are manufactured here. The site in Geel also manufactures about two-thirds of the worldwide chemical production of the pharmaceutical sector of Johnson & Johnson.

In 1999, clinical research and non-clinical development become a global organization within Johnson & Johnson. In 2001, part of the research activities was transferred to the United States with the reorganization of research activities in the Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Development (JJPRD) organization. The research activities of the Janssen Research Foundation (JRF) and the R.W. Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute (PRI) (United States) were merged into the new global research organization. A new building for pharmaceutical development is completed in Beerse in 2001. In 2002, a new logistics and informatics centre is opened at a new site, Beerse 2. In 2003 two new research buildings are constructed, the Discovery Research Center (DRC), and the Drug Safety Evaluation Center (DSEC). On 27 October 2004, the Dr. Paul Janssen Research Center, for discovery research, was inaugurated.

The success of Janssen Pharmaceutica is commonly attributed to the vision of its founder, who himself was a brilliant scientist, but was also surrounded by talented and motivated employees, both scientifically and commercially. Dr. Paul Janssen created an environment which stimulated the creativity of his research workers.

Janssen Pharmaceutica in China

Xi'an-JanssenIn 1985, Janssen Pharmaceutica was the first Western pharmaceutical company to set up a pharmaceutical factory in the People's Republic of China (Xi'an). Already in 1983, Janssen had signed a cooperation contract to modernise products in an existing, but old, chemical factory in Hanzhong (in the province Shaanxi) and to produce the active compound of some Janssen products, such as mebendazole. Paul Appermont and Joos Horsten were responsible for the project.

In 1976 Paul Janssen had met the Lebanese-American doctor George Shafik Hatem (1912-1988) who was known in China under the name Ma Haide. Paul Janssen met with Ma Haide for three days in 1976, and decided to start a business in China right after the Cultural Revolution (1967-1976) and the opening to the west by Deng Xiaoping in 1978. The first factory was set up by Joos Horsten in Hanzhong, after which the second and larger factory followed in X'ian.

Janssen Pharmaceutica has developed and brought to the market about 70 new active substances (NCE), of which the most well-known are (name may differ):

Imodium (against diarrhoea. Active substance: loperamide)
Motilium (against flatulence - and bowel impairments. Active substance: domperidone)
Reminyl (against Alzheimer disease (dementia). Active substance: galantamine)
Daktarin (against fungal infections. Active substance: miconazole)
Nizoral (against dandruf, Active substance: ketoconazole)
Durogesic (fentanylpatch for pain suppression. Active substance: fentanyl)
Vermox (against worms. Active substance: mebendazole)
Risperdal (antipsychotic, against mental illness such as schizophrenia. Active substance: risperidone)
Five drugs of Janssen Pharmaceutica, in the course of time, were put on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines:

Haldol (haloperidol)
Ergamisol (levamisole)
Daktarin (miconazole)
Vermox (mebendazole)
Nizoral (ketoconazole) (on the WHO list until 2005)



IVF Bleeding During Pregnancy

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilised by sperm outside the woman's womb, in vitro. IVF is a major treatment in infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves hormonally controlling the ovulatory process, removing ova (eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium. The fertilised egg (zygote) is then transferred to the patient's uterus with the intent to establish a successful pregnancy.

"In vitro"
Main article: In vitro
The term in vitro, from the Latin root meaning in glass, is used, because early biological experiments involving cultivation of tissues outside the living organism from which they came, were carried out in glass containers such as beakers, test tubes, or petri dishes. Today, the term in vitro is used to refer to any biological procedure that is performed outside the organism it would normally be occurring in, to distinguish it from an in vivo procedure, where the tissue remains inside the living organism within which it is normally found. A colloquial term for babies conceived as the result of IVF, test tube babies, refers to the tube-shaped containers of glass or plastic resin, called test tubes, that are commonly used in chemistry labs and biology labs. However in vitro fertilisation is usually performed in the shallower containers called petri dishes. (Petri-dishes may also be made of plastic resins.) However, the IVF method of Autologous Endometrial Coculture is actually performed on organic material, but is yet called in vitro.

On the basis of the findings of Min Chueh Chang's application of in vitro fertilisation to animals, the technique was developed for humans in the United Kingdom by Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. The first "test-tube baby", Louise Brown, was born in Oldham, England, as a result on July 25, 1978 amid intense controversy over the safety and morality of the procedure.

Subhash Mukhopadhyay became the first physician in India, and the second in the world after Steptoe and Edwards, to perform in vitro fertilisation resulting in a test tube baby "Durga" (alias Kanupriya Agarwal) on October 3, 1978. Facing social ostracism, bureaucratic negligence, reprimand and insult instead of recognition from the Marxist West Bengal government and refusal of the Government of India to allow him to attend international conferences, he committed suicide in his Calcutta residence in 1981.

Major pioneering developments in IVF also occurred in Australia under the leadership of Carl Wood, Alan Trounson and Ian Johnston. The world's third IVF baby, Candice Reed was born on June 23, 1980 in Melbourne, Australia.

The first successful IVF treatment in the USA (producing Elizabeth Jordan Carr) took place in 1981 under the direction of Doctors Howard Jones and Georgeanna Seegar Jones in Norfolk, Virginia. Since then IVF has exploded in popularity, with as many as 1% of all births now being conceived in-vitro, with over 115,000 born in the USA to date. At present, the percentage of children born after IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been up to 4% of all babies born in Denmark.

Jane Mohr, 38, of Manhattan Beach Calif., gave birth to the nation's first set of triplets born 21 months apart due to in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and long-term embryo storage. Jane gave birth November 29, 1988 to two daughters, Mollie McKenna and Hannah Christina Mohr, nearly two years after the birth of her son, Cooper Patrick Mohr.

Initially IVF was developed to overcome infertility due to problems of the fallopian tube, but it turned out that it was successful in many other infertility situations as well. The introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) addresses the problem of male infertility to a large extent.

Thus, for IVF to be successful it may be easier to say that it requires healthy ova, sperm that can fertilize, and an uterus that can maintain a pregnancy. Cost considerations generally place IVF as a treatment when other less expensive options have failed.

This means that IVF can be used for females who have already gone through pregnancy. The donated oocyte can be fertilised in a crucible. If the fertilisation is successful, the fertilised egg will be transferred into the uterus, within which it will develop into an embryo.


Ovarian stimulation
Treatment cycles are typically started on the third day of menstruation and consist of a regimen of fertility medications to stimulate the development of multiple follicles of the ovaries. In most patients injectable gonadotropins (usually FSH analogues) are used under close monitoring. Such monitoring frequently checks the estradiol level and, by means of gynecologic ultrasonography, follicular growth. Typically approximately 10 days of injections will be necessary. Spontanenous ovulation during the cycle is prevented by the use of GnRH agonists or GnRH antagonists, which block the natural surge of luteinizing hormone (LH).

Oocyte retrieval
Main article: Transvaginal oocyte retrieval
When follicular maturation is judged to be adequate, human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) is given. This agent, which acts as an analogue of luteinizing hormone, would cause ovulation about 36 hours after injection, but a retrieval procedure takes place just prior to that, in order to recover the egg cells from the ovary. The eggs are retrieved from the patient using a transvaginal technique involving an ultrasound-guided needle piercing the vaginal wall to reach the ovaries. Through this needle follicles can be aspirated, and the follicular fluid is handed to the IVF laboratory to identify ova. The retrieval procedure takes about 20 minutes and is usually done under conscious sedation or general anesthesia.

Fertilization itself
In the laboratory, the identified eggs are stripped of surrounding cells and prepared for fertilisation. In the meantime, semen is prepared for fertilisation by removing inactive cells and seminal fluid. The sperm and the egg are incubated together (at a ratio of about 75,000:1) in the culture media for about 18 hours. By that time fertilisation should have taken place and the fertilised egg would show two pronuclei. In situations where the sperm count is low, a single sperm is injected directly into the egg using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The fertilised egg is passed to a special growth medium and left for about 48 hours until the egg has reached the 6-8 cell stage.

Laboratories have developed grading methods to judge oocyte and embryo quality. Typically, embryos that have reached the 6-8 cell stage are transferred three days after retrieval. In many American and Australian programmes, however, embryos are placed into an extended culture system with a transfer done at the blastocyst stage, especially if many good-quality day-3 embryos are available. Blastocyst stage transfers have been shown to result in higher pregnancy rates. In Europe, day-2 transfers are common

Embryo transfer
Embryos are graded by the embryologist based on the number of cells, evenness of growth and degree of fragmentation. The number to be transferred depends on the number available, the age of the woman and other health and diagnostic factors. In countries such as the UK, Australia and New Zealand, a maximum of two embryos are transferred except in unusual circumstances. This is to limit the number of multiple pregnancies. The embryos judged to be the "best" are transferred to the patient's uterus through a thin, plastic catheter, which goes through her vagina and cervix. Several embryos may be passed into the uterus to improve chances of implantation and pregnancy.

The patient has to wait two weeks before she returns to the clinic for the pregnancy test. During this time she may receive progesterone—a hormone that keeps the uterus lining thickened and suitable for implantation. Many IVF programmes provide additional medications as part of their protocol.

Success rates
While the overall live birth rate via IVF in the U.S. is about 27% per cycle (33% pregnancy rate), the chances of a successful pregnancy via IVF vary widely based on the age of the woman (or, more precisely, on the age of the eggs involved). Where the woman's own eggs are used as opposed to those of a donor, for women under 35, the pregnancy rate is commonly approximately 43% per cycle (36.5% live birth), while for women over 40, the rate falls drastically - to only 4% for women over 42. Other factors that determine success rates include the quality of the eggs and sperm, the duration of the infertility, the health of the uterus, and the medical expertise. It is a common practice for IVF programmes to boost the pregnancy rate by placing multiple embryos during embryo transfer. A flip side of this practice is a higher risk of multiple pregnancy, itself associated with obstetric complications.

IVF programmes generally publish their pregnancy rates. However, comparisons between clinics are difficult as many variables determine outcome. Furthermore, these statistics depend strongly on the type of patients selected.

There are many reasons why pregnancy may not occur following IVF and embryo transfer, including

The timing of ovulation may be misjudged, or ovulation may not be able to be predicted or may not occur
Attempts to obtain eggs that develop during the monitored cycle may be unsuccessful
The eggs obtained may be abnormal or may have been damaged during the retrieval process
A semen specimen may not be able to be provided
Fertilization of eggs to form embryos may not occur
Cleavage or cell division of the fertilised eggs may not take place
The embryo may not develop normally
Implantation may not occur
Equipment failure, infection and/or human error or other unforeseen and uncontrollable factors, which may result in the loss of or damage to the eggs, the semen sample and/or the embryos
According to a 2005 Swedish study published in the Oxford Journal 'Human Reproduction' 166 women were monitored starting one month before their IVF cycles and the results showed no significant correlation between psychological stress and their IVF outcomes. The study concluded with the recommendation to clinics that it might be possible to reduce the stress experienced by IVF patients during the treatment procedure by informing them of those findings. While psychological stress experienced during a cycle might not influence an IVF outcome, it is possible that the experience of IVF can result in stress that leads to depression. The financial consequences alone of IVF can influence anxiety and become overwhelming. However, for many couples, the alternative is infertility, and the experience of infertility itself can also cause extreme stress and depression.

The major complication of IVF is the risk of multiple births. This is directly related to the practice of transferring multiple embryos at embryo transfer. Multiple births are related to increased risk of pregnancy loss, obstetrical complications, prematurity, and neonatal morbidity with the potential for long term damage. Strict limits on the number of embryos that may be transferred have been enacted in some countries (e.g., England) to reduce the risk of high-order multiples (triplets or more), but are not universally followed or accepted. Spontaneous splitting of embryos in the womb after transfer does occur, but is rare and would lead to identical twins. Recent evidence suggest that singleton offspring after IVF is at higher risk for lower birth weight for unknown reasons.

Another risk of ovarian stimulation is the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

If the underlying infertility is related to abnormalities in spermatogenesis, it is plausible, but too early to examine that male offspring is at higher risk for sperm abnormalities.

Birth defects
The issue of birth defects remains a controversial topic in IVF. A majority of studies do not show a significant increase after use of IVF. Some studies suggest higher rates for ICSI , while others do not support this finding. Major birth defect include chromosomal abnormalities, genetic imprinting defects, and multiple organ abnormalities. Hansen et al conducted a systematic review of published studies (including ICSI) and found a 30-40% increase risk of birth defects associated with assisted reproductive technology when compared to children born after spontaneous conception. Possible explanations offered were the underlying cause of the infertility, factors associated with IVF/ICSI, culture conditions, and medications, however, the actual cause is not known.


Embryo cryopreservation
If multiple embryos are generated, patients may choose to freeze embryos that are not transferred. Those embryos are placed in liquid nitrogen and can be preserved for a long time. There are currently 500,000 frozen embryos in the United States. The advantage is that patients who fail to conceive may become pregnant using such embryos without having to go through a full IVF cycle. Or, if pregnancy occurred, they could return later for another pregnancy.

Oocyte cryopreservation
Cryopreservation of unfertilised mature oocytes has been successfully accomplished, e.g. in women who are likely to lose their ovarian reserve due to undergoing chemotherapy.

Ovarian tissue cryopreservation
Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is of interest to women who want to preserve their reproductive function beyond the natural limit, or whose reproductive potential is threatened by cancer therapy. Research on this issue is promising.

Adjunctive interventions
There are several variations or improvements of IVF, such as ICSI, ZIFT, GIFT and PGD. An increasing number of fertility specialists and centers offer acupuncture as a part of their IVF protocol, or maintain a list of acupuncturists specialising in infertility.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a more recent development associated with IVF which allows the sperm to be directly injected in to the egg using micromanipulation. This is used for sperm that have difficulty penetrating the egg and when sperm numbers are very low. ICSI results in success rates equal to IVF fertilisation.

In Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) eggs are removed from the woman, fertilized and then placed in the woman's fallopian tubes rather than the uterus.

In gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) eggs are removed from the woman, and placed in one of the fallopian tubes, along with the man's sperm. This allows fertilization to take place inside the woman's body. Therefore, this variation is actually an in vivo fertilisation, and not an in vitro fertilisation.

PGD can be performed on embryos prior to the embryo transfer. A similar, but more general test has been developed called Preimplantation Genetic Haplotyping (PGH).

An increasing number of fertility specialists and centers recognize the benefits of acupuncture and offer acupuncture as a part of their IVF protocol. Limited but supportive evidence from clinical trials and case series suggests that acupuncture may improve the success rate of IVF and the quality of life of patients undergoing IVF and that it is a safe adjunct therapy. However, this conclusion should be interpreted with caution because most studies reviewed had design limitations, and the acupuncture interventions employed often were not consistent with traditional Chinese medical principles.

Mechanism of acupuncture
The literature so far has come up with four mechanisms of how acupuncture could be beneficial for IVF:

Neuroendicrinological modulations
Increased blood flow to uterus and ovaries
Modulation in cytokines
Reducing stress, anxiety and depression

Summarizing four acupuncture trials published in peer reviewed scientific journal Fertility and sterility, involving a total of just under 800 women, the results clearly showed a pregnancy was twice as likely to occur in the acupuncture group compared to the control group.

Following are examples of individual studies.

According to a report published in Fertility and Sterility, if done correctly, Acupuncture significantly improves IVF success rate. However, many scientific and methodologic issues are unclear and further research has to be done before acupuncture could be used routinely by clinicians.

Researchers in Adelaide has evaluated the effect of acupuncture on women undergoing IVF, and couldn't exclude a smaller treatment effect. However, there was no significant difference compared to a control group of women not getting acupuncture.

A randomized, prospective study showed that acupuncture significantly (p<0.01) increased IVF implantation rates and pregnancy rates. Positive trends were also observed in miscarriage rates although the results were not significant. The study has been criticized for lacking traditional scientific practices when interpreting the data, on the play of chance, and that positive impact of acupuncture on IVF success rates is not definitive. However, assessments of nonpharmacological treatments must take into consideration additional methodological issues. This criticism is possibly arising from lack of understanding of methodological differences in clinical trials evaluating nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments and in particular methodological issues in trials of acupuncture.

Electro-acupuncture in oocyte retrieval for IVF
Electro-acupuncture has a proven analgesic effect in oocyte retrieval for IVF.

Complementary medicines
Infertility patients commonly use complementary medicines. Health-care practitioners and fertility specialists need to be proactive in acquiring and documenting the use of these practices. There is a need to provide further information to patients on the use of CMs and therapies. Further research examining the reasons for use of CMs and therapies is needed.

A study of hypnotherapy suggests a higher success rate when integrated with treatment. However, neither this study is without criticism. Experts say the study failed to take into account key differences between the groups compared in the study. These differences would have had a major influence on their chances of conceiving.


Certain ethical issues have been raised from the beginning when IVF was introduced. These concerns include:

Bypassing the natural method of conception.
The creation of life in the laboratory.
Fertilization of more embryos than will be needed.
Discarding of excess embryos.
Unnatural environment for embryos.
Use of untested technology.
Not affordable for many.
Misallocation of medical resources.
Creation of embryos, then freezing them, and keeping them "in limbo".
Exposure of embryos to unnatural substances.
Destruction of embryos in research.
Potential to create embryos for medical purposes.
Potential to select embryos (PGD).
Potential to modify embryos.
Facilitation of the idea that embryos are commodities.
Financial rewards for IVF doctors dissuade them from recommending other methods to couples.
Infertility is treated as a disease and not as a symptom of underlying medical problems.
The long term effect on frozen embryos is unknown.

Separating the traditional mother-father model
The IVF process requires sperm, eggs, and a uterus. To achieve a pregnancy any of these requirements can be provided by a third party (or more parties): third party reproduction. This has created additional ethical and legal concerns. The use of IVF provides also greater range of options for single people and same-sex couples wishing to have children. Although both groups already raise children, IVF facilitates this process. Some people object that this could give psychological problems to the child if they grow up without a mother/father

A number of cases have achieved notoriety:

In 2001, a French woman received worldwide publicity when she posed as the wife of her brother in order to give birth to a donor egg fertilized by his sperm. Some saw this as a form of incest; others thought it would prove psychologically unhealthy for the child when he learned how he was delivered; whereas other people simply couldn't see anything wrong with the situation.
In a few cases laboratory mix-ups (misidentified gametes, transfer of wrong embryos) have occurred leading to legal action against the IVF provider and complex paternity suits. An example is the case of a woman in California who received the embryo of another couple and was notified of this mistake after the birth of her son.

Pregnancy past menopause
While menopause has set a natural barrier to further conception, IVF has allowed women to be pregnant in their fifties and sixties. Women whose uteruses have been appropriately prepared receive embryos that originated from an egg of an egg donor. Therefore, although these women do not have a genetic link with the child, they have an emotional link through pregnancy and childbirth. In many cases the genetic father of the child is the woman's partner. Even after menopause the uterus is fully capable to carry out its function.

 IVF Bleeding During Pregnancy

IVF Bleeding During Pregnancy

Heart Dieseas

Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and is the leading cause of death in the United States as of 2007.

Types of heart disease

Cardiomyopathy literally means "heart muscle disease". It is the deterioration of the function of the myocardium (i.e., the actual heart muscle) for any reason. People with cardiomyopathy are often at risk of arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac death.

Extrinsic cardiomyopathies - cardiomyopathies where the primary pathology is outside the myocardium itself. Most cardiomyopathies are extrinsic, because by far the most common cause of a cardiomyopathy is ischemia. The World Health Organization calls these specific cardiomyopathies:
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
Coronary artery disease
Congenital heart disease - see below
Nutritional diseases affecting the heart
Ischemic (or ischaemic) cardiomyopathy
Hypertensive cardiomyopathy
Valvular cardiomyopathy - see also Valvular heart disease below
Inflammatory cardiomyopathy - see also Inflammatory heart disease below
Cardiomyopathy secondary to a systemic metabolic disease
Intrinsic cardiomyopathies - weakness in the muscle of the heart that is not due to an identifiable external cause.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) - most common form, and one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In DCM the heart (especially the left ventricle) is enlarged and the pumping function is diminished.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM or HOCM) - genetic disorder caused by various mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. In HCM the heart muscle is thickened, which can obstruct blood flow and prevent the heart from functioning properly.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) - arises from an electrical disturbance of the heart in which heart muscle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue. The right ventricle is generally most affected.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) - least common cardiomyopathy. The walls of the ventricles are stiff, but may not be thickened, and resist the normal filling of the heart with blood. ** Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy - the left ventricle wall has failed to properly grow from birth and such has a spongy appearance when viewed during an echocardiogram.

Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease is any of a number of specific diseases that affect the heart itself and/or the blood vessel system, especially the veins and arteries leading to and from the heart. Research on disease dimorphism suggests that women who suffer with cardiovascular disease usually suffer from forms that affect the blood vessels while men usually suffer from forms that affect the heart muscle itself. Known or associated causes of cardiovascular disease include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia and hypercholesterolemia. Types of cardiovascular disease include:


Congenital heart disease
Congenital heart disease, existing primarily at birth, refers to any of a number of heart diseases caused by unavoidable genetic factors.

Aortic valve stenosis

Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease is a disease of the heart caused by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium. Angina pectoris and myocardial infarction (heart attack) are symptoms of and conditions caused by coronary heart disease.

Ischaemic heart disease - another disease of the heart itself, characterized by reduced blood supply to the organ.

Heart failure
Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure (or CHF), and congestive cardiac failure (CCF), is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body.

Cor pulmonale, a failure of the right side of the heart.

Hypertensive heart disease
Hypertensive heart disease, heart disease caused by high blood pressure, especially localised high blood pressure. Conditions that can be caused by hypertensive heart disease include:

Left ventricular hypertrophy
Coronary heart disease
(Congestive) heart failure
Hypertensive cardiomyopathy
Cardiac arrhythmias

Inflammatory heart disease
Inflammatory heart disease involves inflammation of the heart muscle and/or the tissue surrounding it.

Endocarditis - inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. The most common structures involved are the heart valves.
Inflammatory cardiomyopathy
Myocarditis - inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart. It is generally due to infection (viral or bacterial). It may present with chest pain, rapid signs of heart failure, or sudden death.

Valvular heart disease
Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more valves of the heart. The valves in the right side of the heart are the tricuspid valve and the pulmonic valve. The valves in the left side of the heart are the mitral valve and the aortic valve.

Aortic valve stenosis
Mitral valve prolapse
Valvular cardiomyopathy

 Heart Dieseas

Heart Dieseas


Erysipelas (Greek ερυσίπελας - red skin) is an acute streptococcus bacterial infection of the dermis, resulting in inflammation and characteristically extending into underlying fat tissue.

(Erysipelas is also the name given to an infection in animals caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Infection by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in humans is known as erysipeloid.)

Risk factors
This disease is most common among the elderly, infants, and children. People with immune deficiency, diabetes, alcoholism, skin ulceration, fungal infections and impaired lymphatic drainage (e.g., after mastectomy, pelvic surgery, bypass grafting) are also at increased risk.

Signs and symptoms
Patients typically develop symptoms including high fevers, shaking, chills, fatigue, headaches, vomiting, and general illness within 48 hours of the initial infection. The erythematous skin lesion enlarges rapidly and has a sharply demarcated raised edge. It appears as a red, swollen, warm, hardened and painful rash, similar in consistency to an orange peel. More severe infections can result in vesicles, bullae, and petechiae, with possible skin necrosis. Lymph nodes may be swollen, and lymphedema may occur. Occasionally, a red streak extending to the lymph node can be seen.

The infection may occur on any part of the skin including the face, arms, fingers, legs and toes, but it tends to favor the extremities. Fat tissue is most susceptible to infection, and facial areas are typically around the eyes, ears, and cheeks. Repeated infection of the extremities can lead to chronic swelling (lymphadenitis).

Most cases of erysipelas are due to Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as group A streptococci), although non-group A streptococci can also be the causative agent. Historically, the face was most affected; today the legs are affected most often.

Erysipelas infections can enter the skin through minor trauma, eczema, surgical incisions and ulcers, and often originate from strep bacteria in the subject's own nasal passages.

This disease is mainly diagnosed by the appearance of the rash and its characteristics. Blood cultures are unreliable for diagnosis of the disease, but may be used to test for sepsis. Erypsipelas must be differentiated from herpes zoster, angioedema, contact dermatitis, and diffuse inflammatory carcinoma of the breast.

Erysipelas can be distinguished from cellulitis by its raised advancing edges and sharp borders. Elevation of the antistreptolysin O titre occurs after around 10 days of illness.

Depending on the severity, treatment involves either oral or intravenous antibiotics, using penicillins, clindamycin or erythromycin. While illness symptoms resolve in a day or two, the skin may take weeks to return to normal.

Spread of infection to other areas of body through the bloodstream (bacteremia), including septic arthritis and infective endocarditis (heart valves).
Septic shock.
Recurrence of infection – Erysipelas can recur in 18-30% of cases even after antibiotic treatment.
Lymphatic damage
Necrotizing fasciitis -- AKA "the flesh-eating bug." A potentially-deadly exacerbation of the infection if it spreads to deeper tissue.



Diabetes Mangement

Diabetes is a chronic disease with no cure as of 2007. It is associated with an impaired glucose cycle, altering metabolism. Management of this disease may include lifestyle modifications such as achieving and maintaining proper weight, diet, exercise and foot care.

Types of Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Gestational diabetes
Impaired fasting glycaemia
Impaired glucose tolerance

Disease Management
Diabetes management:
•Diabetic diet
•Anti-diabetic drugs
•Conventional insulinotherapy
•Intensive insulinotherapy
Other Concerns
Cardiovascular disease
Diabetic comas:
•Diabetic hypoglycemia
•Diabetic ketoacidosis
•Nonketotic hyperosmolar

Diabetic myonecrosis
Diabetic nephropathy
Diabetic neuropathy
Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetes and pregnancy

Blood tests
Blood sugar
Glucose tolerance test
Glycosylated hemoglobin

Overview of management

Issues requiring management
This short section requires expansion.

The primary issue requiring management is the glucose cycle, whereby glucose in the bloodstream is made available to cells in the body, a process dependent upon the twin cycles of glucose entering the bloodstream, and insulin allowing appropriate uptake into the cells of the body. Both aspects can require management.

Complexities relating to management
The main complexities stem from the nature of the feedback loop itself, which is sought to be regulated:

The glucose cycle is a system which is affected by two factors: entry of glucose into the bloodstream and also blood levels of insulin to control its transport out of the bloodstream
As a system, it is sensitive to diet and exercise
It is affected by the need for user anticipation due to the complicating effects of time delays between any activity and the respective impact on the glucose system
Management is highly intrusive and compliance is an issue, since it relies upon user lifestyle change and (often) upon regular sampling and measuring of blood glucose levels, multiple times a day in many cases
It changes as people grow and develop
It can be highly individual
As diabetes is a prime risk factor for cardiovascular disease, controlling other risk factors which may give rise to secondary conditions, as well as the diabetes itself, is one of the facets of diabetes management. Checking cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride levels may indicate hyperlipoproteinemia, which may warrant treatment with hypolipidemic drugs. Checking the blood pressure and keeping it within strict limits (using diet and antihypertensive treatment) protects against the retinal, renal and cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Regular follow-up by a podiatrist or other foot health specialists is encouraged to prevent the development of diabetic foot. Annual eye exams are suggested to monitor for progression of diabetic retinopathy.

The expense, inconvenience and discomfort of frequent blood glucose measurements has been limited until recently. Recently newer devices which monitor glucose levels on an ongoing basis have been developed, as detailed below.

Early advancements
Late in the nineteenth century, sugar in the urine (glycosuria) was associated with diabetes. Various doctors studied the connection. Frederick Madison Allen studied diabetes in 1909-12, then published a large volume, Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes, (Boston, 1913). He invented a fasting treatment for diabetes called the Allen treatment for diabetes. His diet was an early attempt at managing diabetes.

Modern approaches to diabetes primarily rely upon dietary and lifestyle management, often combined with regular ongoing blood glucose level monitoring.

Diet management allows control and awareness of the types of nutrients entering the digestive system, and hence allows indirectly, significant control over changes in blood glucose levels. Blood glucose monitoring allows verification of these, and closer control, especially important since some symptoms of diabetes are not easy for the patient to notice without actual measurement.

Other approaches include exercise control, and other lifestyle changes impacting upon the glucose cycle.

Blood sugar level
Blood sugar level is measured by means of a glucose meter, with the result either in mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter in the USA) or mmol/L (millimoles per litre in Canada and Europe) of blood. The average normal person should have a glucose level of around 4.5 to 7.0 mmol/L (80 to 125 mg/dL). In the diabetic patient a before-meal level of <6.1 mmol/L (<110 mg/dL) and a level two hours after the start of a meal of <7.8 mmol/L (<140 mg/dL) is acceptable.

Optimal management of diabetes involves patients measuring and recording their own blood glucose levels. By keeping a diary of their own blood glucose measurements and noting the effect of food and exercise, patients can modify their lifestyle to better control their diabetes. For patients on insulin, patient involvement is important in achieving effective dosing and timing.

Hypo- and hyper-glycaemia
Levels which are significantly above or below this range are problematic and can in some cases be dangerous. A level of <3.8 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL) is usually described as a hypoglycaemic attack (low blood sugar). Most diabetics know when they're going to "go hypo" and usually are able to eat some food or drink something sweet to raise levels. A patient who is hyperglycemic (high glucose) can also become temporarily hypoglycemic, under certain conditions (e.g. not eating regularly, or after strenuous exercise, followed by fatigue).

Levels greater than 13-15 mmol/L (230-270 mg/dL) are considered high, and should be monitored closely to ensure that they reduce rather than continue to remain high. The patient is advised to seek urgent medical attention as soon as possible if blood sugar levels continue to rise after 2-3 tests. High blood sugar levels are known as hyperglycaemia, which is not as easy to detect as hypoglycemia and usually happens over a period of days rather than hours or minutes. If left untreated, this can result in diabetic coma and death.

A blood glucose test strip for an older style (ie, optical color sensing) monitoring systemProlonged and elevated levels of glucose in the blood, which is left unchecked and untreated, will, over time, result in serious diabetic complications and sometimes even death. It is therefore highly important that a diabetic patient checks their blood levels either daily or every few days to see what levels they are achieving over a given period of time. There is also computer software for the PC which is available from blood testing manufacturers which can display results and trends over time. Type 1 patients will have to check on a more regular daily basis due to insulin therapy, which is a fine art to master.

A history of blood sugar level results is especially useful for the diabetic to present to their doctor or physician in the monitoring and control of the disease. Failure to maintain a strict regimen of testing can accelerate symptoms of the condition, and it is therefore imperative that any diabetic patient strictly monitor their glucose levels regularly.

Glycemic control
Glycemic control is a medical term referring to the typical levels of blood sugar (glucose) in a person with diabetes mellitus. Much evidence suggests that many of the long-term complications of diabetes, especially the microvascular complications, result from many years of hyperglycemia (elevated levels of glucose in the blood). Good glycemic control, in the sense of a "target" for treatment, has become an important goal of diabetes care.

Because blood sugar levels fluctuate throughout the day and glucose records are imperfect indicators of these changes, the percentage of hemoglobin which is glycosylated is used as a proxy measure of long-term glycemic control in research trials and clinical care of people with diabetes. This test, the hemoglobin A1c or glycosylated hemoglobin reflects average glucoses over the preceding 2-3 months. In nondiabetic persons with normal glucose metabolism the glycosylated hemoglobin is usually 4-6% by the most common methods (normal ranges may vary by method).

"Perfect glycemic control" would mean that glucose levels were always normal (70-130 mg/dl, or 3.9-7.2 mMol/L) and indistinguishable from a person without diabetes. In reality, because of the imperfections of our treatment measures for replacing a pancreas, even "good glycemic control" describes blood glucose levels that average somewhat higher than normal much of the time.

Accepted "target levels" of glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin that are considered good control have been lowered over the last 25 years, because of improvements in the tools of diabetes care, because of increasing evidence of the value of glycemic control in avoiding complications, and by the expectations of both patients and physicians. What is considered "good control" also varies by age and susceptibility of the patient to hypoglycemia.

In the 1990s the American Diabetes Association conducted a publicity campaign to persuade patients and physicians to strive for average glucose and hemoglobin A1c values below 200 mg/dl (11 mMol/l) and 8%. Currently many patients and physicians attempt to do better than that.

Poor glycemic control refers to persistently elevated blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, which may range from 200-500 mg/dl (11-28 mMol/L) and 9-15% or higher over months and years before severe complications occur.


An older style portable blood glucose meter. A blood sample is applied to an inserted strip (see image above) and color changes caused by reaction with blood glucose are measured by the meter.Relying on their own perceptions of symptoms of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia is usually unsatisfactory as mild to moderate hyperglycemia causes no obvious symptoms in nearly all patients. Other considerations include the fact that, while food takes several hours to be digested and absorbed, insulin administration can have glucose lowering effects for as little as 2 hours or 24 hours or more (depending on the nature of the insulin preparation used and individual patient reaction). In addition, the onset and duration of the effects of oral hypoglycemic agents vary from type to type and from patient to patient.

Personal (home) glucose monitoring
Control and outcomes of both types 1 and 2 diabetes may be improved by patients using home glucose meters to regularly measure their glucose levels. Glucose monitoring is both expensive (largely due to the cost of the consumable test strips) and requires significant commitment on the part of the patient. The effort and expense may be worthwhile for patients when they use the values to sensibly adjust food, exercise, and oral medications or insulin. These adjustments are generally made by the patients themselves following training by a clinician.

Regular blood testing, especially in type 1 diabetics, is essential to keep adequate control of glucose levels and to reduce the chance of long term side effects of the disease. There are many (at least 20+) different types of blood monitoring devices available on the market today; not every meter suits all patients and it is a specific matter of choice for the patient, in consultation with a physician or other experienced professional, to find a meter that they personally find comfortable to use. The principle of the devices is virtually the same: a small blood sample is collected and measured. In one type of meter, the electrochemical, a small blood sample is produced by the patient using a lancet (a sterile pointed needle). The blood droplet is usually collected at the bottom of a test strip, while the other end is inserted in the glucose meter. This test strip contains various chemicals so that when the blood is applied, a small electrical charge is created between two contacts. This charge will vary depending on the glucose levels within the blood. In older glucose meters, the drop of blood is placed on top of a strip. A chemical reaction occurs and the strip changes color. The meter then measures the color of the strip optically.

Self-testing is clearly important in type I diabetes where the use of insulin therapy risks episodes of hypoglycaemia and home-testing allows for adjustment of dosage on each administration. However its benefit in type 2 diabetes is more controversial as there is much more variation in severity of type 2 cases. It has been suggested that some type 2 patients might do as well with home urine-testing alone. The best use of home blood-sugar monitoring is being researched.

Benefits of control and reduced hospital admission have been reported. However, patients on oral medication who do not self-adjust their drug dosage will miss many of the benefits of self-testing, and so it is questionable in this group. This is particularly so for patients taking monotherapy with metformin who are not at risk of hypoglycaemia. Regular 6 monthly laboratory testing of HbAc1 (glycated haemoglobin) provides some assurance of longterm effective control and allows the adjustment of the patient's routine medication dosages in such cases. High frequency of self-testing in type 2 diabetes has not been shown to be associated with improved control. The argument is made, though, that type 2 patients with poor long term control despite home blood glucose monitoring, either have not had this integrated into their overall management, or are long overdue for tighter control by a switch from oral medication to injected insulin.

HbA1c test
A useful test that has usually been done in a laboratory is the measurement of blood HbA1c levels. This is the ratio of glycosylated hemoglobin in relation to the total hemoglobin. Persistent raised plasma glucose levels cause the proportion of these cells to go up. This is a test that measures the average amount of diabetic control over a period originally thought to be about 3 months (the average red blood cell lifetime), but more recently thought to be more strongly weighted to the most recent 2 to 4 weeks. In the non-diabetic, the HbA1C level ranges from 4.0-6.0%; patients with diabetes mellitus who manage to keep their HbA1C level below 6.5% are considered to have good glycemic control. The HbA1c test is not appropriate if there has been changes to diet or treatment within shorter time periods than 6 weeks or there is disturbance of red cell aging (e.g. recent bleeding or hemolytic anemia) or a hemoglobinopathy (e.g. sickle cell disease). In such cases the alternative Fructosamine test is used to indicate average control in the preceding 2 to 3 weeks.

Ongoing monitoring
Main article: Blood glucose monitoring
Recently, devices have been manufactured which provide ongoing monitoring of glucose levels on an automated basis during the day, for example:

The Paradigm REAL-Time by Minimed, is a blood glucose monitoring device that provides blood glucose measurements to be made every five minutes. The patient can thus adjust an insulin infusion pump immediately and mimic the "feed-back" mechanism of a pancreas. Significant reductions in complications of therapy have been demonstrated and reductions in long-term complications from diabetes mellitus are projected.
The US Food and Drug Administration has also approved a non-invasive blood glucose monitoring device, the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer. This allows checking blood glucose levels, while puncturing the skin as little as twice a day. Once calibrated with a blood sample, it pulls body fluids from the skin using small electrical currents, taking six readings an hour for as long as thirteen hours. It has not proven to be reliable enough, or convenient enough to be used in lieu of conventional blood monitoring. Other non-invasive methods like radio waves, ultrasound and energy waves are also being tested.

Approaches to management

Insulin and other drug based approaches
Currently, the goal for diabetics is to avoid or minimize chronic diabetic complications, as well as to avoid acute problems of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Adequate control of diabetes leads to lower risk of complications associated with unmonitored diabetes including kidney failure (requiring dialysis or transplant), blindness, heart disease and limb amputation. The most prevalent form of medication is hypoglycemic treatment through either oral hypoglycemics and/or insulin therapy. There is emerging evidence that full-blown diabetes mellitus type 2 can be evaded in those with only mildly impaired glucose tolerance.

Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus require direct injection of insulin as their bodies cannot produce enough (or even any) insulin. As of 2005, there is no other clinically available form of insulin administration other than injection for patients with type 1: injection can be done by insulin pump, by jet injector, or any of several forms of hypodermic needle. There are several insulin application mechanisms under experimental development as of 2004. There have also been proposed vaccines for type I using glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), but these are currently not being tested by the pharmaceutical companies that have sublicensed the patents to them.

For type 2 diabetics, diabetic management consists of a combination of diet, exercise, and weight loss, in any achievable combination depending on the patient. Obesity is very common in type 2 diabetes and contributes greatly to insulin resistance. Weight reduction and exercise improve tissue sensitivity to insulin and allow its proper use by target tissues. Patients who have poor diabetic control after lifestyle modifications are typically placed on oral hypoglycemics. Some Type 2 diabetics eventually fail to respond to these and must proceed to insulin therapy.

Patient education and compliance with treatment is very important in managing the disease. Improper use of medications and insulin can be very dangerous causing hypo- or hyper-glycemic episodes.

Insulin therapy requires close monitoring and a great deal of patient education, as improper administration is quite dangerous. For example, when food intake is reduced, less insulin is required. A previously satisfactory dosing may be too much if less food is consumed causing a hypoglycemic reaction if not intelligently adjusted. In addition, exercise decreases insulin requirements as exercise increases glucose uptake by body cells whose glucose uptake is controlled by insulin, and vice versa. In addition, there are available several types of insulin with varying times of onset and duration of action.

Insulin therapy creates risk because of the inability to continuously know a person's blood glucose level and adjust insulin infusion appropriately. New advances in technology have overcome much of this problem. Small, portable insulin infusion pumps are available from several manufacturers. They allow a continuous infusion of small amounts of insulin to be delivered through the skin around the clock, plus the ability to give bolus doses when a person eats or has elevated blood glucose levels. This is very similar to how the pancreas works, but these pumps lack a continuous "feed-back" mechanism. Thus, the user is still at risk of giving too much or too little insulin unless blood glucose measurements are made.

The FDA has approved a treatment called Exenatide, based on the saliva of a Gila monster, to control blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes.

For most Type 1 diabetics there will always be a need for some insulin injections throughout their life. However, both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics can see dramatic normalization of their blood sugars through controlling their diet, and some Type 2 diabetics can fully control the disease by dietary modification. As diabetes can lead to many other complications it is critical to maintain blood sugars as close to normal as possible and diet is the leading factor in this level of control.

The American Diabetes Association in 1994 recommended that 60-70% of caloric intake should be in the form of carbohydrates. This is somewhat controversial, with some researchers claiming that 40% is better, while others claim benefits for a high-fiber, 75% carbohydrate diet.

An article summarizing the view of the American Diabetes Association gives many recommendations and references to the research. One of the conclusions is that it is caloric intake must be limited to that which is necessary for maintaining a healthy weight.

Exercise is known to be helpful. A pilot study has also found evidence that Tai Chi and Qigong reduce the severity of type 2 diabetes.

 Diabetes Mangement

Diabetes Mangement


Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the organism Blastomyces dermatitidis. Endemic to portions of North America, blastomycosis causes clinical symptoms similar to histoplasmosis.

Blastomycosis was first described by Thomas Casper Gilchrist in 1894 and sometimes goes by the eponym Gilchrist's disease. It is also sometimes referred to as Chicago Disease.

In the United States, blastomycosis is endemic in the Mississippi river and Ohio river basins and around the Great Lakes. The annual incidence is less than 1 case per 100,000 people in Mississippi, Louisiana, Kentucky, and Arkansas. The cases are greater in northern states such as Wisconsin, where from 1986 to 1995 there were 1.4 cases per 100,000 people.

In Canada, most cases of blastomycosis occur in northwestern Ontario, particularly around the Kenora area. The moist, acidic soil in the surrounding woodland harbours the fungus.

Blastomycosis is distributed internationally; cases are sometimes reported from Africa.

Infection occurs by inhalation of the fungus from its natural soil habitat. Once inhaled in the lungs, they multiply and may disseminate through the blood and lymphatics to other organs, including the skin, bone, genitourinary tract, and brain. The incubation period is 30 to 100 days, although infection can be asymptomatic.

Clinical features

Blastomycosis of skinBlastomycosis can present in one of the following ways:

a flulike illness with fever, chills, myalgia, headache, and a nonproductive cough which resolves within days.
an acute illness resembling bacterial pneumonia, with symptoms of high fever, chills, a productive cough, and pleuritic chest pain.
a chronic illness that mimics tuberculosis or lung cancer, with symptoms of low-grade fever, a productive cough, night sweats, and weight loss.
a fast, progressive, and severe disease that manifests as ARDS, with fever, shortness of breath, tachypnea, hypoxemia, and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates.
skin lesions, usually asymptomatic, appear as ulcerated lesions with small pustules at the margins
bone lytic lesions can cause bone or joint pain.
prostatitis may be asymptomatic or may cause pain on urinating.
laryngeal involvement causes hoarseness.

Once suspected, the diagnosis of blastomycosis can usually be confirmed by demonstration of the characteristic broad based budding organisms in sputum or tissues by KOH prep, cytology, or histology. Tissue biopsy of skin or other organs may be required in order to diagnose extra-pulmonary disease. Commercially available urine antigen testing appears to be quite sensitive in suggesting the diagnosis in cases where the organism is not readily detected. While culture of the organism remains the definitive diagnostic standard, its slow growing nature can lead to delays in treatment of up to several weeks.

However, sometimes blood and sputum cultures may not detect blastomycosis; lung biopsy is another option, and results will be shown promptly.

Itraconazole given orally is the treatment of choice for most forms of the disease. Cure rates are high, and the treatment over a period of months is usually well tolerated. Amphotericin B is considerably more toxic, and is usually reserved for critically ill patients and those with central nervous system disease.

Mortality rate in treated cases

0-2% in treated cases among immunocompetent patients
29% in immunocompromised patients
40% in the subgroup of patients with AIDS
68% in patients presenting as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)



Center for Desiese Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services based in unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia adjacent to the campus of Emory University and east of the city of Atlanta. It works to protect public health and the safety of people, by providing information to enhance health decisions, and promotes health through partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. The CDC focuses national attention on developing and applying disease prevention and control (especially infectious diseases), environmental health, occupational safety and health, health promotion, prevention and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States.

CDC Health Protection Goals
CDC is committed to achieving true improvements in people’s health. To do so, the agency is defining specific health impact goals to prioritize and focus its work and investments and measure progress.

Healthy People in Every Stage of Life
All people, and especially those at greater risk of health disparities, will achieve their optimal lifespan with the best possible quality of health in every stage of life.

Start Strong: Increase the number of infants and toddlers that have a strong start for healthy and safe lives. (Infants and Toddlers, ages 0-3 years).

Grow Safe and Strong: Increase the number of children who grow up healthy, safe, and ready to learn. (Children, ages 4-11 years).

Achieve Healthy Independence: Increase the number of adolescents who are prepared to be healthy, safe, independent, and productive members of society. (Adolescents, ages 12-19 years).

Live a Healthy, Productive, and Satisfying Life: Increase the number of adults who are healthy and able to participate fully in life activities and enter their later years with optimum health. (Adults, ages 20-49 years).

Live Better, Longer: Increase the number of older adults who live longer, high-quality, productive, and independent lives. (Older Adults, ages 50 and over).

Healthy People in Healthy Places
The places where people live, work, learn, and play will protect and promote their health and safety, especially those at greater risk of health disparities.

Healthy Communities: Increase the number of communities that protect, and promote health and safety and prevent illness and injury in all their members.

Healthy Homes: Protect and promote health through safe and healthy home environments.

Healthy Schools: Increase the number of schools that protect and promote the health, safety and development of all students, and protect and promote the health and safety of all staff. (e.g. – healthy food vending, physical activity programs).

Healthy Workplaces: Promote and protect the health and safety of people who work by preventing workplace-related fatalities, illnesses, injuries, and personal health risks.

Healthy Healthcare Settings: Increase the number of healthcare settings that provide safe, effective, and satisfying patient care.

Healthy Institutions: Increase the number of institutions that provide safe, healthy, and equitable environments for their residents, clients or inmates.

Healthy Travel and Recreation: Ensure that environments enhance health and prevent illness and injury during travel and recreation.

People Prepared for Emerging Health Threats
People in all communities will be protected from infectious, occupational, environmental, and terrorist threats. Preparedness goals will address scenarios that include natural and intentional threats. The first round of these scenarios will encompass influenza, anthrax, plague, emerging infections, toxic chemical exposure, and radiation exposure.


Increase the use and development of interventions known to prevent human illness from chemical, biological, radiological agents, and naturally occurring health threats.

Decrease the time needed to classify health events as terrorism or naturally occurring in partnership with other agencies.

Decrease the time needed to detect and report chemical, biological, radiological agents in tissue, food or environmental samples that cause threats to the public’s health.

Improve the timeliness and accuracy of communications regarding threats to the public’s health.


Decrease the time to identify causes, risk factors, and appropriate interventions for those affected by threats to the public’s health.

Decrease the time needed to provide countermeasures and health guidance to those affected by threats to the public’s health.


Decrease the time needed to restore health services and environmental safety to pre-event levels.

Improve the long-term follow-up provided to those affected by threats to the public’s health.

Decrease the time needed to implement recommendations from after-action reports following threats to the public’s health.

Healthy People in a Healthy World
People around the world will live safer, healthier and longer lives through health promotion, health protection, and health diplomacy.

Health Promotion: Global health will improve by sharing knowledge, tools and other resources with people and partners around the world.

Health Protection: Americans at home and abroad will be protected from health threats through a transnational prevention, detection and response network.

Health Diplomacy: CDC and the United States Government will be a trusted and effective resource for health development and health protection around the globe.

CDC Structure
CDC is one of the major operating components of the Department of Health and Human Services. CDC's major organizational components respond individually in their areas of expertise and pool their resources and expertise on cross-cutting issues and specific health threats. The agency comprises these major organizational components:

Office of the Director manages and directs the activities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; provides overall direction to, and coordination of, the scientific/medical programs of CDC; and provides leadership, coordination, and assessment of administrative management activities.

The CDC is under the direction of Dr. Julie Louise Gerberding, M.D., M.P.H. Dr. Gerberding has been the director of the CDC since July 2002.

Coordinating Center for Environmental Health and Injury Prevention
National Center for Environmental Health/ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH-ATSDR) provides national leadership in preventing and controlling disease and death resulting from the interactions between people and their environment.

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) prevents death and disability from non occupational injuries, including those that are unintentional and those that result from violence.

Coordinating Center for Health Information and Services
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) provides statistical information that guides actions and policies to improve the health of the American people.

National Center for Public Health Informatics (NCPHI) provides national leadership in the application of information technology in the pursuit of public health.

National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM) provides national leadership in health marketing science and in its application to impact public health.

Coordinating Center for Health Promotion
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) provides national leadership for preventing birth defects and developmental disabilities and for improving the health and wellness of people with disabilities.

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) prevents premature death and disability from chronic diseases and promotes healthy personal behaviors.

National Office of Public Health Genomics provides national leadership in fostering understanding of human genomic discoveries and how they can be used to improve health and prevent disease.

Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases
National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) prevents illness, disability, and death caused by infectious diseases in the United States and around the world.

National Immunization Program (NIP) prevents disease, disability, and death from vaccine-preventable diseases in children and adults.

National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHSTP) provides national leadership in preventing and controlling human immunodeficiency virus infection, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis.

Coordinating Office for Global Health provides national leadership, coordination, and support for CDC’s global health activities in collaboration with CDC’s global health partners.

Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness & Emergency Response provides strategic direction for the Agency to support terrorism preparedness and emergency response efforts.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ensures safety and health for all people in the workplace through research and prevention.

CDC performs many of the administrative functions for the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), a sister agency of CDC, and one of eight federal public health agencies within the Department of Health and Human Services. The Director of CDC also serves as the Administrator of ATSDR.

CDC Workforce
CDC’s budget for 2006 is $8.5 billion. Today the staff numbers nearly 15,000 (including 6,000 contractors and 840 Commissioned Corps officers) in 170 occupations. Engineers, entomologists, epidemiologists, biologists, physicians, veterinarians, behaviorial scientists, nurses, laboratorians, economists, health communicators, toxicologists, chemists, computer scientists, and statisticians—to name only a few—each are dedicated to the pursuit of public health.

CDC headquarters in DeKalb County, Georgia as seen from Emory UniversityCDC is headquartered in DeKalb County, Georgia, but it has 10 other locations in the United States and Puerto Rico. Those locations include Anchorage, Alaska; Cincinnati, Ohio; Fort Collins, Colorado; Hyattsville, Maryland; Morgantown, West Virginia; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Spokane, Washington; and Washington, D.C. In addition, CDC staff are located in state and local health agencies, quarantine/border health offices at ports of entry, and 45 countries around the world, from Angola to Zimbabwe.

The work force is diverse and well qualified. More than a third of CDC’s employees are members of a racial or ethnic minority group, and women account for nearly 60 percent of CDC’s workforce. Nearly 40 percent of employees have a master’s degree; 25 percent have a Ph.D.; and 10 percent have medical degrees. The average age of a CDC worker is 46.

The CDC campus in Atlanta houses facilities for the research of extremely dangerous biological agents. This setting was well represented in the Dustin Hoffman film Outbreak, although the location depicted in the film was supposed to be the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases bio-research facility. The CDC labs also figure prominently in the book "The Demon in the Freezer" by Richard Preston and "Virus Hunter" by C.J. Peters, former head of the Special Pathogens Branch at the CDC.

The CDC also conducts the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the world’s largest, on-going telephone health survey system.

CDC Timeline
CDC Timeline

CDC: Then and Now
On July 1, 1946, the Communicable Disease Center was established. Its founder was a visionary leader in public health, Dr. Joseph Mountin. The new agency, which was established the year after World War II ended, descended from the wartime agency, Malaria Control in War Areas. Established as a small branch of the U.S. Public Health Service, the CDC was located on the sixth floor of the Volunteer Building on Peachtree Street in Atlanta, Georgia, hundreds of miles from Washington, D.C., and other federal agencies. The organization took root deep in the South, once the heart of the malaria zone.

CDC initially focused on fighting malaria by killing mosquitoes. In fact, malaria was by far CDC’s most absorbing interest; during the first year of operations, 59 percent of its personnel were engaged in this effort. Among its 369 employees, the key jobs at CDC were originally entomology and engineering. In 1946, there were only seven medical officers on duty.

Back then, CDC’s budget was about $1 million. The insecticide DDT, available since 1943, was the primary weapon in the malaria fight, and CDC’s early challenges included obtaining enough trucks, sprayers, and shovels to wage the war on mosquitoes. In CDC’s initial years, more than six and a half million homes were sprayed, and an early organization chart was even drawn—somewhat fancifully—in the shape of a mosquito.

But CDC was soon to spread its wings. CDC founder Dr. Joseph Mountin continued to advocate for public health issues and to push for CDC to extend its responsibilities to many other communicable diseases. In 1947, CDC made a token payment of $10 to Emory University for 15 acres of land on Clifton Road in Atlanta, the home of CDC headquarters today. CDC employees collected the money to make the purchase. The benefactor behind the “gift” was Robert Woodruff, Chairman of the Board of the Coca-Cola Company. Woodruff had a long-time interest in malaria control; it had been a problem in areas where he went hunting. As you can see, malaria was the catalyst for the agency’s creation. The scene was now set for CDC to expand its home, its mission, and its reach.

Today, CDC is the nation's premier health promotion, prevention, and preparedness agency and a global leader in public health. During the past 60 years, its name has changed to reflect its more complex mission. While it’s still known by the initials CDC, the agency’s name today is Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

In the six decades since its founding, CDC has grown dramatically: in staff, budget and mission. The world authority on communicable disease, CDC has broadened its focus to include chronic diseases, disabilities, injury control, workplace hazards, environmental health threats, and terrorism preparedness. Whereas malaria was once considered a threat to the country’s security, new threats have now emerged. CDC tackles emerging diseases and other health risks, including birth defects, West Nile virus, obesity, avian and pandemic flu, E. coli, auto wrecks, and bioterrorism, to name a few.

CDC remains committed to its vision of healthy people in a healthy world. Part of the Department of Health and Human Services, CDC applies research and findings to improve people’s daily lives and responds to health emergencies, and in 60 years, CDC has grown in size and stature, scope and science, and reputation and reach. Memories have been built and milestones achieved. World-class scientists work in world-class facilities. But while much has changed since 1946, the heart of CDC is still its people—dedicated and diligent, persevering and professional, making a difference in lives around the world.

The CDC is one of the few Bio-Safety Level 4 laboratories in the country, as well as one of only two "official" repositories of smallpox in the world. The second smallpox stores reside at the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in the Russian Federation, though it is possible that other countries may have obtained samples during the collapse of the Soviet Union.

 Center for Desiese Prevention

Center for Desiese Prevention

Amphetamine Long Term Physiological

Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as, beta-phenyl-isopropylamine, and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome. Initially it was more popularly used to diminish the appetite and to control weight. Brand names of the drugs that contain Amphetamine include Adderall, and Dexedrine. The drug is also used illegally as a recreational club drug and as a performance enhancer. The term "Amphetamine" may also refer to the class of compounds derived from Amphetamine, often referred to as the Substituted Amphetamines.

Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by Lazar Edeleanu at the University of Berlin. He called the compound "phenylisopropylamine". It was one of a series of compounds related to the plant derivative Ephedrine, which had been purified two years previously by Nagayoshi Nagai. No pharmacological use was found for amphetamine until 1927, when pioneer psychopharmacologist Gordon Alles resynthesized it. Alles was part of a group of researchers looking for an ephedrine substitute. It was then introduced in most of the world in the form of the pharmaceutical Benzedrine. This drug was used by the militaries of several nations, especially the air forces, to fight fatigue and increase alertness among servicemen. After decades of reported abuse, the FDA banned Benzedrine inhalers, and limited amphetamines to prescription use in 1959, but illegal use became common.

The related compound methamphetamine was first synthesized from ephedrine in Japan in 1893 by chemist Nagayoshi Nagai. In 1919, crystallized methamphetamine was synthesized by Akira Ogata via reduction of ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine. The German military was notorious for their use of methamphetamine in World War Two. The German pharmaceutical Pervitin is an oral pill of 3mg which became available in 1938, by mid-1941 it became a controlled substance because of the amount of time needed for a soldier to rest and recover after use. Military doctors were then given guidelines on how they should issue it.

In 1997 and 1998, researchers at Texas A&M University reported finding amphetamine and methamphetamine in the foliage of two Acacia species native to Texas, A. berlandieri and A. rigidula. Previously, both of these compounds had been thought to be human inventions.

Amphetamine is a chiral compound. The racemic mixture can be divided into its optical antipodes: levo- and dextro-amphetamine. Amphetamine is the parent compound of its own structural class, comprising a broad range of psychoactive derivatives, e.g., MDMA (Ecstasy) and the N-methylated form, methamphetamine. Amphetamine is a homologue of phenethylamine.

Traditionally the medical drug came in the racemic salt d, l-amphetamine sulfate (racemic amphetamine contains levo- and dextro-form in equal amounts). Today, dextroamphetamine sulphate is the predominant form of the drug used;[citation needed] it consists entirely of the d-isomer. Attention disorders are often treated using Adderall or a generic equivalent, a formulation of mixed amphetamine salts that contain both d/l-amphetamine and d-amphetamine in the sulfate and saccharate forms mixed to a final ratio of 3 parts d-amphetamine to 1 part l-amphetamine.

Amphetamine, both as d-amphetamine (dextroamphetamine) and l-amphetamine (or a racemic mixture of the two isomers), is believed to exert its effects by binding to the monoamine transporters and increasing extracellular levels of the biogenic amines dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and serotonin. It is hypothesized that d-amphetamine acts primarily on the dopaminergic systems, while l-amphetamine is comparatively norepinephrinergic. The primary reinforcing and behavioral-stimulant effects of amphetamine, however, are linked to enhanced dopaminergic activity, primarily in the mesolimbic DA system.

Amphetamine and other amphetamine type stimulants principally act to release dopamine into the synaptic cleft. Amphetamine has been shown to both diffuse through the intracellular membrane and travel via the DopAmine Transporter (DAT) to increase concentrations of amphetamine in the neuronal terminal. The increased amphetamine concentration releases endogenous stores of dopamine from Vesicular Monoamine Transporters (VMATs), thereby increasing intra-neuronal concentrations of transmitter. This increase in concentration effectively reverses transport of dopamine via the (DAT) into the synapse In addition, amphetamine binds reversibly to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and blocks the transporter's ability to clear DA from the synaptic space. Amphetamine also acts in this way with norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and to a lesser extent serotonin.

Research published in the Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics (2007), indicates that amphetamine binds to a group of receptors called TrAce Amine Receptors (TAAR). TAAR are a newly discovered receptor system which seems to be affected by a range of amphetamine-like substances called trace amines.

Medicinal use
Indicated for:
Diet suppressant
Treatment-resistant depression

Recreational uses:
Stimulant popular with British subcultures, such as the mods,punks and goths since late 1950s

Other uses:
Used by the U.S. military to combat fatigue and increase wakefulness

CNS Stimulants
MAOI use

Side effects:
Decrease in appetite/weight loss


Ear, nose, and throat:

Relaxation of Ciliary muscle

Decreased Secretions
Decreased Peristalsis

Indirect Dopamine Agonist
Indirect Norepinephrine Agonist
Indirect Serotonin Agonist(lesser)


Along with methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta, etc.), amphetamine is one of the standard treatments for ADHD. Beneficial effects for ADHD can include improved impulse control, improved concentration, decreased sensory overstimulation, and decreased irritability. These effects can be dramatic, particularly in young children. The ADHD medication Adderall is composed of four different amphetamine salts, and Adderall XR is a timed release formulation of these same salt forms.

When used within the recommended doses, side-effects like loss of appetite tend to decrease over time. However, amphetamines last longer in the body than methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta, etc.), and tend to have stronger side-effects on appetite and sleep.

Amphetamines are also a standard treatment for narcolepsy as well as other sleeping disorders. They are generally effective over long periods of time without producing addiction or physical dependence.

Amphetamines are sometimes used to augment anti-depressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression.

Medical use for weight loss is still approved in some countries, but is regarded as obsolete and dangerous in others.

Effects of use
Amphetamines release stores of norepinephrine and dopamine from nerve endings by converting the respective molecular transporters into open channels. Amphetamine also releases stores of serotonin from synaptic vesicles when taken in relatively high doses. This effect is more pronounced in methamphetamine use. Like methylphenidate (Ritalin), amphetamines also prevent the monoamine transporters for dopamine and norepinephrine from recycling them (called reuptake inhibition), which leads to increased amounts of dopamine and norepinephrine in synaptic clefts.

These combined effects rapidly increase the concentrations of the respective neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft, which promotes nerve impulse transmission in neurons that have those receptors.

Physical effects
Short-term physiological effects vary greatly, depending on dosage used and the method in which the drug is taken. At therapeutic levels these effects could include decreased appetite, increased stamina and physical energy, increased sexual drive/response and in some cases bruxism (teeth grinding). When the drug is abused effects could include involuntary bodily movements, hyperhidrosis, hyperactivity, jitteriness, nausea, itchy, blotchy or greasy skin, tachycardia, irregular heart rate, hypertension, and headaches. Fatigue can often follow the dose's period of effectiveness. Overdose can be treated with chlorpromazine.

Long-term abuse or overdose effects can include tremor, restlessness, changed sleep patterns, anxiety and increase in pre-existing anxiety, poor skin condition, hyperreflexia, tachypnea, gastrointestinal narrowing, and weakened immune system. Fatigue and depression can follow the excitement stage. Erectile dysfunction, heart problems, stroke, and liver, kidney and lung damage can result from prolonged abuse. When insufflated, amphetamine can lead to a deterioration of the lining of the nostrils.

Psychological effects
Short-term psychological effects of the drug at therapeutic levels could include alertness, euphoria, increased concentration, rapid talking, increased confidence, and increased social responsiveness. Effects of the drug when abused could include, nystagmus (eye wiggles), hallucinations, and loss of REM sleep the night after use.
Long-term amphetamine abuse can induce psychological effects that include insomnia, mental states resembling schizophrenia, aggressiveness (not associated with schizophrenia), addiction or dependence with accompanying withdrawal symptoms, irritability, confusion, and panic. Chronic and/or extensively-continuous use can lead to amphetamine psychosis, which causes delusions and paranoia, but this is uncommon when taken as prescribed. The abuse of an amphetamine is highly-psychologically addictive, and, with chronic abuse, tolerance develops very quickly. Withdrawal, although not physiologically threatening, is an unpleasant experience (including paranoia, depression, difficult breathing, dysphoria, gastric fluctuations and/or pain, and lethargia). This commonly leads chronic users to re-dose amphetamine frequently, explaining tolerance and increasing the possibility of addiction.

Tolerance is developed rapidly in amphetamine abuse, therefore increasing the amount of the drug that is needed to satisfy the addiction. Many abusers will repeat the amphetamine cycle by taking more of the drug during the withdrawal. This leads to a very dangerous cycle and may involve the use of other drugs to get over the withdrawal process. Chronic abusers of amphetamines typically snort or resort to drug injection to experience the full effects of the drug in a faster and more intense way, with the added risks of infection, vein damage and higher risk of overdose. While continuous dosing with amphetamine causes tolerance, intermittent use can produce "reverse tolerance" or sensitization to some psychological effects. As a result, regular use commonly results in a quick decrease of unwanted side effects, but without an equivalent loss of its stimulant properties. Notably, the sensitization is induced more quickly, and persists far longer than withdrawal-related effects, suggesting a phenomenon more complex than a simple tolerance-induced withdrawal syndrome.

Because of the abuse of amphetamines in the U.S., most brands were discontinued by the 90's including the highly abused brand names such as Biphetamine (known as black beauties), and Preludin known on the street as Bams, which the coating was peeled and then injected. Only a few brands of amphetamines are still produced in the United States which are prescribed for narcolepsy, hyperactivity in children, or for extremely obese people.

Harm reduction approach to amphetamine use
Proponents of the harm reduction philosophy seek to minimize the harms that arise from the recreational use of amphetamines. Safer means of taking the drug—smoked, nasal, oral, and rectal—are encouraged due to the lower risk of overdose, infection, and contraction of bloodborne viruses associated with drug injection. Smoking drugs reveals their effects roughly as fast as injection, as blood directly picks up the drug at the lungs. Amphetamine, in contrast to methamphetamine, isn't smokable.

Where the strength of the drug is unknown, users are encouraged to try a small amount first to gauge the strength, to minimize the risks of overdose. For the same reason the use of two or more drugs at the one time is discouraged. Users are also discouraged from using amphetamines by themselves, as friends can assist in the event of an overdose or amphetamine psychosis.

Amphetamine users who choose to inject should always use new needles and syringes where possible, and not share these with other users. Governments that support a harm reduction approach often supply new needles and syringes on a confidential basis, as well as education on proper filtering prior to injection, safer injection techniques, and safe disposal of used injecting gear.

 Amphetamine Long Term Physiological

Amphetamine Long Term Physiological

What Are The Early Signs of Adenoma

An adenoma is a collection of growths (-oma) of glandular origin. Adenomas can grow from many organs including the colon, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid, etc. These growths are benign, although over time they may progress to become malignant (at which point they are called adenocarcinomas). Though adenomas are benign, they can cause serious health complications by compressing other structures (mass effect) and by producing large amounts of hormones in an unregulated manner (paraneoplastic syndrome).

Adenoma is a benign epithelial tumor arising in epithelium of mucosa (stomach, small intestine and bowel), glands (endocrine and exocrine) and ducts. In hollow organs (digestive tract) the adenoma grows upwards into the lumen - adenomatous Polyp (medicine)polyp or polypoid adenoma. Depending on the type of the insertion base, adenoma may be pedunculated lobular head with a long slender stalk, covered by normal mucosa or sessile (broad base).

The adenomatous proliferation is characterized by different degrees of cell dysplasia (atypia or loss of normal differentiation of epithelium) irregular cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, (pseudo)stratified nuclei, nucleolus, decreased mucosecretion and mitosis. The architecture may be tubular, villous or tubulo-villous. Basement membrane and muscularis mucosae are intact.


Adenomas of the colon are quite prevalent. They are found commonly at colonoscopy. They are removed because of their tendency to become malignant and lead to colon cancer.

This is a tumor which is most often small and asymptomatic and its derived from renal tubules. It may be a precursor lesion to renal carcinoma.

Adrenal adenomas are common, 1 in 10 people have them benign and asymptomatic. They are often found on of the abdomen, usually not as the focus of investigation; they are usually incidental findings. About one in 10,000 is malignant. Thus, a biopsy is rarely called for, especially if the lesion is homogeneous and smaller than 3 centimeters. Follow-up images in three to six months can confirm the stability of the growth.

While some adrenal adenomas do not secrete hormones at all , often some secrete cortisol causing Cushing's syndrome, aldosterone causing Conn's syndrome or androgens causing hyperandrogenism.

About one in 10 people are found to have solitary thyroid nodules. Investigation is required because a small percentage of these are malignant. Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells found at biopsy are of the follicular type.

Pituitary adenomas are commonly seen in 10% of the neurological patients. A lot of them remain undiagnosed. Treatment is usually surgical, to which patients generally respond well. The most common subtype, prolactinoma, is seen more often in women, and is frequently diagnosed during pregnancy as the hormone progesterone increases its growth. Medical therapy bromocriptine generally suppresses prolactinomas; progesterone antagonist therapy has not proven to be successful.

Hepatocellular adenoma, Hepatic adenomas are a rare benign tumour of the liver, which may present with hepatomegaly or other symptoms.

Breast adenomas are called fibroadenomas. They are often very small and difficult to detect. Often there are no symptoms. Treatments can include a needle biopsy, and/or removal.

Adenomas can also appear in the appendix. The condition is extremely rare and most physicians will never encounter an actual case, but they do happen. The most common version is called cystadenoma. They are usually discovered in the course of examination of the tissue following an appendectomy. If the appendix has ruptured and a tumor is present this presents challenges, especially if malignant cells have formed and thus spread to the abdomen. Former Vice President Dan Quayle was recently found to have cystadenoma in the appendix.

 What Are The Early Signs of Adenoma

What Are The Early Signs of Adenoma